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Using official data from the REMS weather station on board Curiosity (see, I drew this graph that shows us the trend of temperatures before and during the dust storm raging on Mars.
The colors of the curves shown here are divided into groups blue (minimum), green (medium) and red (maximum), where the darker shade represents the ground temperature and the lighter one the air temperature.
As can be seen, upon the arrival of the dust storm (Sol 2080) the maximum temperatures dropped by almost 30°C within four days, while the minimum temperatures rose by about 20°C.
Also from the graph, one can see the negative peak of Sol 2100 which probably represents the peak of the storm itself.
Starting from Sol 2101 a slow rise in maximum temperatures begins, as well as a slow descent of minimum temperatures, indicating a slow but gradual improvement of the transparency of the atmosphere.
Starting from Sol 2140 the maximum ground temperature began to reach and exceed 0°C, but it will probably take another month before reaching the pre-storm conditions where even +18°C were reached.
Another interesting detail to note is the pattern of minimum air and ground temperatures; before the storm the ground cooled between 10 and 15°C more than the air, while during the storm the minimum temperatures often coincide or even the air cools more than the ground!
This detail could indicate some sort of “alteration” of the soil on which I will provide more details later.

HD graph:

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